You may have read many a mocking article recently about an Instagram influencer named @arii who could not even sell 36 shirts to kick-off her fashion line.
No, she is not a terrible influencer.
No, the influencer marketing bubble did not burst.
The reason why she couldn’t is simple:
That’s just not how influencer marketing works.
Making fun of an influencer for not generating immediate sales is like getting annoyed at the seed you just planted for not growing into a field of sunflowers overnight. “Well that didn’t work at all,” you say when you see a cup full of dirt in the morning. “Planting seeds is stupid. It’s a waste of time and money. And also who does that seed think it is, anyway?”
Influencer marketing is mainly a top- to middle- of the funnel marketing activity, and it needs to be treated as such. Marketing is about taking your would-be customers on a journey with you.
Top of the funnel: First make them aware you exist.
Middle of the funnel: Build a reputation and identity for your brand. Nurture them along to the consideration phase.
Bottom of the funnel: Then (and only then) you work on converting them into a customer.
One of the best analogies I’ve heard about this process was when a marketing colleague asked me, “If I met you and asked you to marry me two minutes later, what are the chances you would say yes? I'd probably have a lot better chance after we dated a few years first.”
Now, not all products require as much courting as a marriage proposal, but most products require the buyer go through all the phases I’ve listed above, and the time it takes them to graduate to the next phase is dependent on the product.
Part of the problem is that many companies and people think of influencer marketing like the celebrity endorsements of the 90’s. Pepsi hired Cindy Crawford to be a spokesperson and then looked at how much sales increased to determine effectiveness. However, influencers on social media are not generally celebrities -- yes, there are some celebrities who engage in influencer marketing, and yes, some influencers have amassed some celebrity -- but generally speaking, influencer marketing works because their followers find them more relatable than a celebrity. There’s authenticity and trust baked into the relationship. The more salesy companies require their influencers to be, the more they break down that relationship they are trying to leverage. It's counterproductive.
Another issue is that Instagram is not an ecommerce platform. People are not yet used to buying through Instagram. It’s not the Home Shopping Network. Influencer marketing works because people have several different touch points with a brand, develop an opinion on it over time, and eventually make their way down the funnel to the point where they go buy the product off of Amazon, or wherever they are used to shopping. They open Instagram to scroll through their feed, look at pretty pictures and laugh at some memes. It’s hard to entice someone to make an immediate switch into shopping mode, especially if they have to leave the app or get up for their credit card. Instagram is working on building shopping in, but we are not there yet.
And Influencers: we are partly to blame for these misconceptions, too. Even many influencers themselves don’t understand this ecosystem and how it works. Influencers post the discount codes companies provide them and try selling to their followers, and some even get mad at their followers when they don’t click through. (Not a good look.) We must educate each other and our clients whenever possible.
Still, influencer marketing can be and is extremely profitable, and many companies use it to great effect. Here’s how the winners are using it: as a broad, long-term strategy that involves a relationship with a number of influencers in a similar niche who post authentic, non-salesy content consistently.
On this influencer path, I've been asked to give a fair number of talks. In 2018, I've spoken at a Google Summit, at a marketing conference in New Orleans, on a PR Week podcast, at a few Sony events, and as a guest lecturer at a college in NYC. I used to be incredibly nervous public speaking, but at this point, I just have to take a few deep breaths and I'm good. Practice really is the best way to overcome this fear. Until then, here are my top tips to get over any nerves.
1. Know your stuff; do not rely on notecards. Many talks are accompanied by a presentation. Your slides should prompt you; you should know the rest inside and out.
2. Practice the talk a few times, all the way through. Video yourself on your phone, and watch it back. You can see how fast you should talk, what works, and where you can make changes.
3. Imagine being on stage and forgetting what you are going to say next. Have a plan in place for what you will do if that happens. Maybe have a little joke at the ready, or put a topic in your mind you will jump to. Even plan to take a moment to pause and take a sip of water. Preparing for this reduces the anxiety of it happening, and saves you from panic if it does actually happen.
4. Wear something you feel like a million bucks in. It shouldn't be brand-new in that you should know how it feels while it is on. You don't want to be uncomfortable or be tugging at clothing when you should be completely focused on your talk.
5. Act confident, even if you don't feel confident. Eventually you won't have to act. Remember that these people are listening to you because they want to. What you have to say is valuable. Don't think of the audience as people you have to win over -- they are friends who appreciate your authenticity and information.
Do you have any stories about public speaking? Or any other tips?
In my last blog, I explained how to locate influencers on Instagram. Now, I will explain to you how to determine if the influencer is high-quality and how to spot a "fake," using just their public profile. Here we go:
☐ Do they have a blue checkmark next to their name? Many great influencers do not have a verified account with the blue checkmark, but that said, if an account *does* have a blue check, that means they’ve gone through Instagram’s authentication process. They most likely are not a “fake” account.
☐ Look at follower count. While brands usually pay WAY too much attention to this number, the influencer should really have a few thousand followers at a minimum. They don’t need to have 100K or even 10K, but a few thousand means they have likely built a strong foundation on the platform.
☐ Look at how many people they follow. If they follow almost as many people as follow them, toss ‘em right out of consideration. They are probably using a follow-for-follow strategy to gain followers and this is lame. They don’t have respect on the platform. Generally, I don’t know any influencers who follow over 1000 accounts. You can make exceptions, but keep that as a rule of thumb.
☐ Look at number of posts. There’s not an exact cut-off here either, but their account should have a well-established gallery of hundreds of posts at a minimum. A few thousand, even better. It used to be en vogue to keep the number of posts lower, so it would look like you gained more followers per post. However, nowadays influencers are much less likely to delete their old posts because more posts shows a longer history on the platform.
☐ Look at how often they post. It doesn’t have to be daily, but it should be weekly at a minimum. Check the dates on their last few posts. Good influencers log in often and participate in their community.
☐ Look at their engagement. Any more, it is not great to look at engagement simply as a ratio between the amount of followers an account has and the average amount of likes per post. @kyliejenner has 126 million followers and gets a few million likes per post. That’s like a .2% engagement rate. So, would you consider her a fake? Or a bad influencer? Probably not. Big accounts in particular, even if they got big very legitimately, inevitably have a large base of inactive followers. This is doubly true for accounts with a long history. Many followers gained years ago just don’t log into Instagram like they used to and the inactive base, even made up of real people with real accounts, grows. Instead, look at how many likes they are getting. Even more telling -- check out how many comments they get. And then check out the quality of their comments. Are real people with real accounts commenting? Are other influencers commenting? Click through and check them out. The better the comments section, the better the influencer.
☐ Look at their responses. Is the influencer responding to comments? A great influencer may not answer every comment, but they make a clear effort to answer. Their followers will feel more connected to them if the comments are a two-way street, and you know what that means? A higher quality of influencing.
☐ Look at pictures of them. (This is the last tab right above the gallery.) Are there hub features there? That’s a good sign, showing they have some clout and respect in their area. Have other influencers taken and posted pictures of them? That shows they are active in the community. Are smaller accounts tagging them (to piggyback on their views or because they respect their opinion)? This is another good sign. Ideally, there should be a good amount of photos in this section.
☐ Look at their stories. Since stories expire in 24 hours, it’s a good way of telling if they were on recently. Stories don’t have to be super high quality, but it can give you a peek into their personality.
☐ Look at their highlights. They should definitely have some, first of all. Since these are comprised of IG Stories, they don’t have to be high quality, but again, they will show personality and passions. Extra points if the highlights are organized well.
☐ Look at their gallery. Good influencers have what we in the biz call “feed fit.” The gallery will look cohesive and will look attractive as a whole. Influencers have varying levels of OCD about how good their last 9-block looks, but they all care, and it should show. You should also be able to tell from their gallery if their overall aesthetic meshes well with your brand's.
☐ Look at their captions. This will give you a feel of their personality and how they interact with their community. Does it fit with your brand?
☐ Look at their partnerships. Ambassadors will have a few brands right in their bios. You can also look through their gallery to see if they have done any sponsored posts in the past. If they have some experience already, that’s a great sign that they already know the ropes. Plenty of great influencers may not have any visible previous experience, but it’s definitely something to add to the “pros” column. It means they are open to being contacted by brands.
☐ Look at their bio. Can you tell what they do from their bio? Influencers may or may not have the word “influencer” in their bio. If they do, clearly they are open to influencing opportunities. Regardless, if the influencer is worth their salt, you should be able to tell what their theme or niche is from the bio.
☐ Look at their web site. Serious influencers have their own web site, with pretty limited exceptions, and the link is in their bio. If they have a blog, give them extra points. It shows they are extra-invested.
☐ Look at their email. Is it easy to find their email, either in the bio or via an “Email” button above the gallery? This is another sure-fire way of letting you know they are open to being contacted.
No one will check every box on this list, but let's say they should get 75%. These are all valid considerations, but at the end of the process, you have to take a step back and use your common sense to look at the big picture and your knowledge of your brand to decide if the influencer will be a good fit.
Brands: Any other things you look at?
Influencers: Anything you strongly agree or disagree with, or things you think brands should consider?
Sure, there is software out there that claims to find influencers in certain categories. But, they cost a bunch of money and are they really that accurate? (I’ve used them and the answer is: meh, not really.) They may work for nano-influencer campaigns where you need a large number of influencers with smaller followings and it doesn’t make sense to invest the resources in manually choosing. However, if you’re looking for fewer influencers to forge a longer-lasting relationship with, my methods are the way to go.
The initial process is not linear. It’s messy. You’re going to jump around a lot. But, it's hella effective. Keep a notepad handy for jotting notes. Then:
1. Perform keyword searches within Instagram. Choose keywords relevant to your industry and see what comes up in the “Top” section. Instagram will help you find “Popular Accounts” for similar keywords. Check them out.
2. Perform hashtag searches. Use the popular hashtags within your industry and look at the top posts on the hashtags. Instagram helpfully tells you how many tags each hashtag has within the search results. Don’t waste your time browsing through a super-popular tag with 150 million pictures. More specific tags that have tens of thousands or even a hundred thousand tags are more curated and are used intentionally by accounts within the industry. Example: don’t browse #sunset (204 million posts). Browse #sunset_lover (25.8k posts).
3. Find a hub and look through the featured accounts. A hub is a large community account that features the best content in their niche. It can be a nice way of perusing a Who’s Who of relevant accounts.
4. Once you’ve found a few accounts you like:
5. Once you’ve engaged an influencer, ask them if they have recommendations. If you’re a good brand to work with, they will be happy to introduce you to their talented friends in the influencer game.
Do these things, and you will find some great influencers, guaranteed. Do you have any other tips? I'd love to hear them!
In my next post, I will explain how to tell if an influencer is top-quality based on their profile alone. Stay tuned.
Here's the secret: Make them feel appreciated.
Treat influencers with respect. (Even micro-influencers, even nano-influencers.)
Above all, your relationship with the influencer is going to be the strongest determinant of success. If you want your influencers to do a good job for a brand, it is imperative that you make them feel valued.
As long as you abide by the terms of your agreement, influencers will typically make their required posts. However, if you want them to really evangelize your brand, both in posts and irl, make sure the influencers know you respect and appreciate them. The best influencer marketers understand it's not all about click-throughs or conversions. Social media tends to be more of a top of the funnel activity, and building your brand awareness and reputation should be a top goal. These goals are achieved more readily when your influencers are creating great content, writing passionate and personal captions, giving you extra posts, and talking you up to their influencer friends. These are all things that happy influencers often do.
How can you make influencers feel valued?
Any other ways to make influencers feel valued? Let me know in the comments below.
There are two ways to get ahead in the influencer space:
Personally, it is always my policy to choose more pie.
One of the best ways to support influencers is with likes and comments on their sponsored posts. What are you doing when you see an influencer’s sponsored post? If you get annoyed and scroll past it, you’re hurting our industry. This is no time for ego. Sure, you’d give your eyeteeth to be part of that campaign and you know you could do a better job. But you’re only helping yourself in the long run if you double tap and leave a comment.
Whenever I see a #sponsored post, I make a comment like...
Influencer marketing is still hard for brands to measure, so many rely on qualitative data like comments to prove the success of campaigns. I don’t say anything untrue, I just make it a point to write out my thoughts. I encourage you to do the same.
Not to mention, your comments may ingratiate you to the influencer or even the brand--leading to more opportunity for you. Win-win-win.
Are you already doing this? Interested to hear your thoughts -- comment below.
1. Think about your brand
You are a brand. All actions you take on LinkedIn should coincide with that brand. Think about how you want to be perceived. Clever and well-liked? Innovative and adventurous? Intelligent and diligent? Obviously you should choose qualities that reflect your own personality, and then ensure that your posts keep that same tone.
2. Think about what topics you want to be an expert in
You must choose your niche. People don't want to hear about everything you like unless, of course, you're Oprah. Focus on a few curated topics. I promise you will not appeal to more people if you cover a broad range of topics; instead, you'll get lost because you won't stand out. Answer the question: what am I an expert in? Stick to that.
3. Build out your profile
You need a professionally-taken headshot of you looking at the camera. No selfies, no dark or grainy shots, no photos of you with sunglasses on.
Write a catchy headline that sums you up in a few words (120 characters). This is your slogan for your personal brand.
Fill out your summary, experience, publication, education, etc. sections. It's not just a laundry list--try to show how each experience has made you an expert.
Proofread! Also, have a few friends or colleagues read it and give feedback.
4. Join targeted groups and add interests
Your areas of expertise should be apparent to anyone visiting your profile; seeing what groups you are a part of and what interests you've identified helps show that. Joining groups also keeps you up to date on latest trends, and they are a good forum in which to be recognized for your expertise by peers.
5. Post consistently
Post consistently. Once per day is best. A few times a week is OK. More than two posts a day is probably too much. Less than once a week is too infrequent.
6. Post quality
Curate your posts - post on the topics you want to be a thought leader in. If you share articles, make your own comments on it, don’t just share them. Any photos posted should be very high-quality. It’s OK (and even good) to share some personal content -- but not too much, especially on LinkedIn. A personal post once in a while to give people “a peek” into your daily life is what you’re aiming for.
7. Write articles
Thought leaders have something to say. Write longer-form articles on experiences or advice to show your professionalism. Try to post an article a week, or even biweekly. This gives you loads of credibility.
Engage with any comments you get. Make comments on others’ posts. This helps more people to find you (and then consider you an expert).
9. Make connections
Grow your network strategically. Connect with other people in the industry you're in (or want to be in). Link with people at companies you admire and want to work with. Link with agencies who work with influencers.
Let me know if you have any other tips, or if you've had any success with these!
On social media, we tend to show the happy moments of our lives. And that’s normal. Our real-life photo albums don’t tend to document the hard times. They’re full of weddings and vacations and babies and smiling friends.
The public nature of social media means we are inviting other people to look at the memories we are making. Because we naturally omit the negatives, it’s easy for people to think the negatives just don’t exist. Lives look perfect.
Many times, that’s not intentional. But, as an influencer, there can be a fair amount of pressure to “keep up appearances.” Why would anyone be influenced by someone whose life did not look great? Why would a brand want to work with someone who posted about difficulties with finances or personal relationship problems?
Yet, it’s probably the carefully-curated galleries that feed the vitriol against influencers. There’s a prevalent perception that influencers are making hundreds--even thousands--of dollars per post, getting loads of free things, and are haughtily enjoying insta-fame. Maybe some of them are. But I know a lot of influencers, and I’d like to paint you a different picture.
Influencers are mainly just artists who are being compensated for their work by patrons, who are most often brands. Most influencers don’t make enough to live on that income alone. They love the art and the social nature of the community enough that they persist.
I’m not posting names, but let me give you a few snapshots into the lives of some influencers who have several hundreds of thousands of followers.
-A well-known urban photographer recently became a new dad. A brand offered him $4,000 for several pictures. It wasn’t a “cool” brand and he took a lot of heat from his online community for “selling out.” But, that money helped him pay rent and buy diapers for about six weeks. I personally don’t consider anyone taking work to keep a roof over their kid’s head a sell out.
-A talented female street photographer was offered an all-expenses paid international trip in exchange for pictures and video. It was an amazing experience, sure, but she can’t afford health insurance and her electric has been turned off before. She doesn’t complain; she chose this life and cheerfully does not expect to be able to “have it all.” The shade thrown her way makes me wonder if those people would trade in the security of their steady paychecks like she did.
-An amazing landscape photographer is an ambassador for high-end camera bags and a tripod brand. They “pay” him in free product, and he has a full time job as a custodian to, you know, be able to buy food and stuff. Yes, people you pass in hallways in uniforms without a second thought are the same people you’re wishing you could be like as you scroll through your newsfeed.
I don’t know what the right answer is here. Should we all try to be more transparent online? Would brands still pay people for content and posts if those influencers were up front about the fact that they are trying to cobble together a living by nannying, working in retail, and being an online influencer? Would people be as influenced if the influencers did not appear so successful? Maybe brands would actually pay more if influencers were open about how very little most brands are willing to pony up. What do you think?
At any rate, I hope we can push for a few less eye-rolls when the term “influencer” is mentioned.
What many people don’t know is that I am a lawyer in addition to being a social media addict. True story. Knowing the law has helped me out a lot in this game, and I want to share some useful tips. First off, specifically for my photographer friends, here are some FAQs about copyright ownership:
Do I need to register photos to have a copyright?
No. Generally speaking, as soon as you take a picture, you own a copyright in that picture. You don’t have to register it anywhere. You can register it if you want to; this is just making a public record of the fact that you already own the copyright. Registering is a legal formality that is mainly helpful if you're real serious about suing some mofos for infringing on your work.
Essentially, it boils down to:
But what if I am taking photos for a wedding / a brand / the company I work for?
Great question, smarty pants. This depends on the agreement that you made with the couple / brand / company.
For a wedding or family photo shoot:
You will typically retain the copyright, unless you make a different agreement. You can still post the photo on your social media, on your web site, and print a copy whenever you like. It used to be that wedding togs kept a close hold on their copyrights, and charged a couple a hefty sum per re-print of a photo. Nowadays, it is more common for the photographers to grant a license to the couple or family so they can use the photos on social media and reprint them when they want to.
For a brand:
This is pretty dependent on the brand. For most freelance social media influencing gigs, you will retain your own copyright and will grant a very liberal license to the brand to use your photo. For freelance gigs that are more about content creation for a brand, the company may stipulate in a contract that it is “work made for hire.” This means the copyright in the photos belongs to them. It’s as though the company took the picture. You would have to be granted a license by them to use the photos on your web site, social media, portfolio, etc. In practice, most companies are not total d-bags and won’t give you a hard time for using these types of photos in an online portfolio. However, they would not be too pleased if you upload the photos to a stock image site and made money off of selling additional licenses. So don’t do that.
For the company you work for:
If you’re employed by a company as a photographer, chances are they own the copyright to your work-related photos. You can’t post them to any of your own channels, and the company may take issue with you keeping your work in a public portfolio. The company gets to do whatever they want with your photos. Sorry, their photos.
If you’re employed by a company as an accountant, but your boss asked you to take head shots of Keith in HR for the company web site, you would own that copyright because taking photos is not really related to the job you are employed to do.
If you go out shooting with friends after work or even take jobs as part of a side-hustle, those photos are separate.
Any other questions on copyright ownership of your photos? HMU in comments below or at email@example.com.
Clearly this information is not legal advice and does not create an attorney-client relationship.
Yes, you can decide which social platforms you will grow. Once you understand the strategy, it's all a function of time and resources. This year, I decided to put more of an emphasis behind my Twitter account. Here's a fool-proof list as to how you can grow a Twitter account, as quickly as your bandwidth allows. I've used it successfully for several clients. I figured, why not do it for myself?
1. The basics. First, you need to set up a decent account. Choose an engaging avi, customize your cover, write a pithy bio.
2. Choose a niche. You can't be all over the place. Build a brand, whether you are a person or a business. Are you food-oriented? All about travel? Perhaps you excel at humorous commentary on current events. Whatever it is, you should be able to sum up your feed in a few short sentences. People want to know what to expect when they click "follow."
3. Post consistently. On Twitter, you need to be posting about 4 times a day at a minimum. Not all at once; space them out. You can schedule them in advance.
4. Post quality. No typos or misspellings. Use pictures, or better yet, video. Make sure the posts are cohesive and focus around a common theme. People choose to follow you because you serve up posts they like to look at. Posting what people like is not selling out. It's having a followers-first mentality.
5. Pin a post. Be sure to pin your top or favorite post to the top of your feed. This will give you a chance to make a good first impression and give your visitor a sense of what you're all about, rather than just showing the last thing you've posted.
6. Use hashtags. Make sure they are relevant. This increases your reach organically.
7. Follow strategically. Random follow-for-follow nonsense is worthless. Follow people with accounts similar to yours. If you are focused on providing beauty tips, follow beauty bloggers, cosmetics companies, beauty publications, etc. Twitter will be able to categorize your account and will serve up your account as a suggestion for others interested in beauty to follow.
8. Engage. After you've followed great accounts, engage with them. Reply, retweet when appropriate, like their posts. You'll get known in the right circles this way, and tweeps will help you out with retweets, showing your posts to their audience.
9. Sponsor posts. Twitter makes a lot of low-cost advertising options where you can get engagement for a few cents each. Even personal accounts can take advantage of this, and should, if they want to speed up growth. It's not cheating. Buying followers is cheating. Sponsoring your posts is putting your content in front of people outside of your current follower base to give them the chance to see it and like it.
10. Promote mode. Twitter has opened a beta program to the public that gently promotes your tweets in people's feeds. It's $99 a month (only tier available at the moment), and the nice thing about this is that it is truly set it and forget it. You get the benefits of automation without any of the fear of breaking a Twitter policy. More on this later.